VOLUME 8, ISSUE 5, 2017



Aims and Scope
Editorial Board

Volume 8, Issue 5, 2017, pp.i-viii. Download Full Text (PDF)

1. Sustainable waste management in Northern rural areas: Local utilisation of bio-wastes

Jani Tomperi1, Sari Piippo2, Osmo Aikio3, Tuulikki Luoma4, Kauko Leiviskä1, Eva Pongrácz2

1 Control Engineering, University of Oulu, P.O.Box 4300, FI 90014, Finland.

2 Thule Institute, NorTech, University of Oulu, Finland.

3 Lapin jätehuolto kuntayhtymä, Ivalo, Finland.

4 Sodankylän kunta, Sodankylä, Finland.

Abstract: The Finnish Lapland is the most sparsely populated region in Europe and the population is decreasing all the time. The constantly growing tourist visits and overnight stays cause large amounts of wastes and erosion of local nature. Tightening waste regulations and increasing fossil energy prices provide motivation to improve local waste processing in order to reduce the amounts of bio-waste transported to landfills and use bio-waste as material in bioenergy production. In this study, the current status of waste management at two tourist centres in Finnish Lapland is mapped and proposal for a more sustainable waste management is given. The amount of bio-waste in area where no separate bio-waste collecting is organized is estimated based on the developed prediction model. The estimation of local bioenergy potential produced by anaerobic digestion process in these two case areas is calculated. Usage of liquid and solid end products of anaerobic digestion process as a fertilizer and soil improvement is also presented. It is found that the annual bioenergy potential is fair, but the bioenergy production is not economic profitable around the year using only bio-wastes due to the significant seasonal variation of the amount of wastes.

Volume 8, Issue 5, 2017, pp.365-374.

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2. Exergy output rate optimization for an endoreversible  Brayton cycle CCHPP

Huijun Feng 1,2,3, Lingen Chen 1,2,3, Zhihui Xie1,2,3, Yanlin Ge1,2,3

1 Institute of Thermal Science and Power Engineering, Naval University of Engineering, Wuhan, 430033, P. R. China.

2 Military Key Laboratory for Naval Ship Power Engineering, Naval University of Engineering, Wuhan, 430033, P. R. China.

3 College of Power Engineering, Naval University of Engineering, Wuhan 430033, P. R. China.

Abstract: A combined cooling, heating and power plant (CCHPP), composed of an endoreversible closed Brayton cycle and absorption refrigerator, is studied in this paper. By introducing the finite time thermodynamics, the formula of the exergy output rate (EOR) of the CCHPP is derived. With the help of Powell arithmetic, the compressor pressure ratio of the Brayton cycle and distributions of 7 heat exchanger heat conductances (HEHCs) are optimized, and the maximum EOR of the CCHPP is obtained. It shows that the hot-side HEHC is the largest one among the discussed HEHCs, and several parameters, such as the total HEHC and ratio of heat reservoir temperature to the surrounding temperature, on the optimal performances of the CCHPP are analyzed.

Volume 8, Issue 5, 2017, pp.375-388. Download Full Text Article (PDF)

3. CFD analysis of gas turbine combustor with vortex generator

Ulugbek Azimov, Saurabh Patil

Mechanical and Construction Engineering Department, Northumbria University, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE1 8ST, United Kingdom.

Abstract: Swirl flows have been used lately for the modern gas turbine combustion to enhance the mixing and flame stabilization. Instabilities that occur due to such flow are often termed as precessing vortex core (PVC). This precessing vortex core has a greater effect on the flow characteristics and heat release and its interaction with the flame is important. The numerical analysis using Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) and Large Eddy Simulation (LES) turbulence models were used to carry out simulations of gas turbine combustor to study the PVC and flame interaction in the flow fields. The boundary conditions were set as power output – 35 kW, Reynolds number - 52000 and the equivalence ratio - 0.65. The RANS results were more similar to the experimental one than the LES. The LES results were more useful in studying the PVC characteristics, PVC-flame interaction and instantaneous flow field. The RANS results were helpful in understanding the average flow fields. The grid requirement for both turbulence models and their importance was also studied.

Volume 8, Issue 5, 2017, pp.389-404. Download Full Text Article (PDF)

4. Review of live stock buildings modelled with CFD techniques

Eva H. Guerra-Galdo 1, Fernando EstellésBarber 1, Salvador Calvet Sanz 1, P. Amparo López-Jiménez 2

1 Institute of Animal Science and Technology, Universitat Politècnica de València. Camino de Vera s/n. 46022 Valencia. Spain.

2 Hydraulic and Environmental Engineering Department. Universitat Politècnica de València. Camino de Vera s/n. 46022 Valencia. Spain.

Abstract: The control of the indoor environmental factors (air velocity, temperature, humidity) allows improving the thermal comfort area in automated farms. A deep knowledge of these factors and how they are distributed in the farm allows reducing the effects of thermal stress. In this article, the authors review the use of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models in the climate control of livestock farms and propose recommendations obtained from different farm models. The use of CFD tools and the validation with experimental results has been widely evaluated in the literature. Both real and reduced, scaled farms were evaluated by different authors, regarding the behaviour of airflow, the appropriateness of turbulence models and the use of measurement equipment. Natural and mechanical ventilation have different challenges in practice, and therefore both have been subject of study. Occupied and empty farms were used for validation, and different CFD analysis were used to determine the distribution of air velocity, temperature and humidity. By means of these analyses the environmental parameters have been evaluated as a function of changing farm design and management: the change of building dimensions, the roof geometry, the height of the air inlet openings, the opening angle of air inlets, and the presence of equipment and animals in different sections of the farm.

Volume 8, Issue 5, 2017, pp.405-412. Download Full Text Article (PDF)

5. Diesel engine downsizing with application of biofuels

Xian Mian Tan, Ulugbek Azimov

Department of Mechanical and Construction Engineering, University of Northumbria Newcastle upon Tyne, NE1 8ST, United Kingdom.

Abstract: In this study, we have developed an optimization procedure for diesel engine downsizing with application of biofuels. The analysis was performed using the specialist thermodynamic software to simulate combustion and emission characteristics of an internal combustion engine. A JCB 165 kW Diesel Max commercial nonroad diesel engine has been selected for the project. The performance characteristics of this engine were set as reference. The results for the original engine and downsized engine were compared. The engine performance and emission characteristics with diesel fuel, different blends of soybean methyl ester (SME) and rapeseed methyl ester (RME) have been investigated. The obtained results showed that it was possible to achieve equal level of break power and torque for 50%-downsized engine as compared with those of the original engine. The results over different engine speeds and loads showed around 4-11% reduction range in fuel consumption, 4-11% reduction range in CO2 emissions and about 86-99% reduction range in PM emissions. However, the NOx emissions significantly increased. Further to decrease NOx emission level the exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) was applied.

Volume 8, Issue 5, 2017, pp.413-426. Download Full Text Article (PDF)

6. Electrical load profile management based on storage energy scenarios for residential PV storage system

Hasan N. Muslim1, Afaneen A. Alkhazraji1, Mohammed A. Salih2

1 Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University of Technology, Baghdad, Iraq.

2 Planning and Studies Department, Ministry of Electricity, Baghdad, Iraq.

Abstract: Photovoltaic generation is variable from hour to another based on the sun energy and hence the consumer cannot use and utilize all the energy produced from PV system. Therefore, the ability of applying the management technique can be appear by storing this surplus energy in batteries and then discharge it at night. For this purpose, this work presents an optimized storage energy system design in order to utilize the not beneficiary PV energy as well as to shave peak loads at night. It is found that 500Ah battery bank is required to cover the peak loads (2.4kWh) at night for residential consumer of Baghdad city. Because batteries are expensive, it was necessary to suggest methods to store this energy and discharge it in the proper time. Therefore, six applicable scenarios for storage energy were suggested and built using MATLAB software to optimize the electricity usage and reduce the losses. These scenarios provide a desired change in the load profile shaping (main function of DSM). The implementation of active demand side management dependent on traditional demand side management.

Volume 8, Issue 5, 2017, pp.427-440. Download Full Text Article (PDF)

7. 3D printing and 3D scanning of our ancient history: Preservation and protection of our cultural heritage and identity

Maher A.R. Sadiq Al-Baghdadi

Center of Preserving of the Cities Heritage and Identity, International Energy and Environment Foundation, Najaf, P.O.Box 39, Iraq.

Abstract: 3D printing and 3D scanning are increasingly used in archeology and in cultural heritage preservation. These 3D technologies provide museum curators, researchers and archeologists with new tools to capture in 3D ancient objects, artifacts or art pieces. They can then study, replicate, restore or simply archive them with much more details than traditional 2D pictures. It is even possible to 3D scan entire archeological sites to get a full 3D mapping. Iraq is too rich in ancient cultural heritage but unfortunately much of the hundreds of thousands of artifacts remain in archives of the museums worldwide. Having the exact copies of these ancient artifacts will allow the audience here to learn more about our heritage. The Center of Preserving of the Cities Heritage and Identity (CPCHI) at International Energy and Environment Foundation (IEEF) started a roadmap in preserving our ancient history with 3D scanning, 3D virtual reality, and 3D printing technologies. As part of the project create high-quality 3D replicas of our cultural heritage, which are located in our museums and sites, and most of them are spread around the world, and then exhibit it in several venues throughout our country Iraq. Promising results were obtained in this project through printing of 3D models and generating 3D virtual reality models for our cultural heritage, based on the 3D scan of the original objects that submitted by some international museums and heritage institutes. We expect that this project will not only become vital in the field of replicate or reconstruction of ancient objects, but also for research, documentation, preservation and educational purposes, and it has the potential to serve these purposes in an accessible and all-inclusive way.

Volume 8, Issue 5, 2017, pp.441-456. Download Full Text Article (PDF)